For a Summary of Environmental Law in the United States (Mining) see the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC).
Federal Institutions with Authority over Mining (Excerpted from CEC web site)
The Department of Interior (DOI), through the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), has general authority over mining activities and mineral resources on most U.S. lands. The Department of Agriculture's U.S. Forest Service (USFS) has authority to regulate mining activity on national forest lands. See 36 C.F.R. sec. 228.15.
Minerals Management Service The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the primary agency responsible for issuing mineral exploration and development leases on federal lands, including leases for oil and natural gas exploration and development.
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Established within DOI by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, 30 U.S.C. secs. 1201-1328, the Office administers a national program to minimize the adverse sound and environmental effects of coal mining on public lands, to establish national standards for regulating the environmental effects of surface coal mining, to support state implementation of federal surface mining programs, and to promote reclamation of previously mined areas.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Established in 1879, the USGS of the DOI researches, publishes, and distributes maps and reports covering the country's geophysical features, including its mineral, fuel, and water resources. Responsibilities of the USGS include topographic mapping, geology, water, energy, and mineral resources, and natural hazards. The USGS has more than 300 field offices and two regional centers in Denver, CO, and Menlo Park, CA.
National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University